Types of vehicle maintenance involves the different categories of maintenances carried out in a vehicle. They are as follows
- Daily or Routine maintenance
- Preventive or Recurrent maintenance
- Overhauling or Rehabilitation maintenance
Daily Or Routine Maintenance
This type of maintenance is undertaken in order to forestall anticipated undesirable consequences of breakdown of vehicle. However, it involves the checking of some motor vehicle components parts as well as taking action daily, preferably in the morning before starting the engine.
Check water level in the radiator.
Check belt for tension and cuts.
Check the level of engine oil in the sump using dip stick.
Check for cuts punctures, depth of thread, pressure, alignment and wheel nuts
Daily checks may also include
Breaks And Clutches
- Check the effectiveness of the beake, start the vehicle, drive off a little and step on the brake pedal to test the effectiveness
- Check the tightness and the effectiveness of the brakes and clutches
- Change all the gears one at a time while pressing the clutch pedal
Check the headlamp, side lamp, signal indicators and reverse lights.
- Ensure that the windscreen wipers are functional
- Check the blade for effectiveness
- Check for clearance or “free play”
- Check for automatic transmission fluid(ATF) for power steering only
- Ensure the horns are in good working conditions
- Do not fit wrong horn to your vehicle
- Check spare tyres for cut, punctures, thread and pressure
- Ensure that Jack, Jack handle and wheel spanners are in the vehicle
Reflective Triangle/ Caution Sign
- Ensure a pair of reflective triangle is in the vehicle
- Ensure the correct type and size of fire extinguisher. A multipurpose fire extinguisher is preferable.
Check the electrolyte (battery liquid) and the condition of battery terminals.
Vehicle Body Inspection
Take a walk round the vehicle to check for dents and loose parts. Routine maintenance could be daily or weekly or monthly depending on the use of the vehicle
Preventive Or Recurrent Maintenance
Preventive maintenance is another types of vehicle maintenance that is carried out based on kilometres or monthly basis, depending on the use of the vehicle, as stipulated by the manufacturer’s specifications. If on kilometre basis, it could be between 4,000 and 5000 kilometers. Or when the dashboard indicators says so. The maintenance involves servicing the vehicle completely by the following process
- Drain the engine oil and refill with new oil
- Change the engine oil filter
- Change the contact set (if applicable)
- Replace the fuel filter with new ones
- Clean the air filter
- Check the brake fluid in the master cylinder and top up
- Check the fan belt tension with your thump and if cracked replace with new ones
- Check the electrolyte. One may need re-charge or replace as necessary
- Check all parts of the electrical system. Eg horn, lamp, indicators, etc
- Check the high and low tension cable of the spark plugs and replace if any one cracked.
- Check the braking system eg brake lining and brake pads. If worn-out replace with new ones
- Check wheel alignment and correct if necessary
- Tight all loose bolts and nuts
- Check gear oil or gear box and back axle. Top up if necessary
- Grease all the areas that need greasing
- Clean up the engine and wash the vehicle completely
The last types of vehicle maintenance is overhauling. Overhauling operation is so detailed that the job requires skilled personnel to handle it. It involves dropping the engine and dismantling it to component parts and replacement or re-affixing requires specialised handling. One does not have to wait until there is an engine seizure, a knock or any major damage before embarking on an overhaul, as the aim should be preventive. Major Overhauling of a vehicle should be done when it has covered a distance of between 50,000 and 60,000 kilometers as may be specified by the manufacturer.
Problem That Could Necessitate Overhauling
- Knocking engine
- Engine consuming oil due to worn-out piston rings
- Sparking plugs soaking oil
- Noisy crankshaft bearing/metal bearings
- Metallic sound from the engine etc
Overhauling Involves The Following
- Removal of the cylinder head, decarbonisation and grinding of the valves
- Losing the sump; dismantling the connecting roads, removing of the crankshaft, camshaft, piston carpets, oil pump, etc
- Dismantling the clutch pressure plate, disc plate, release bearing, flywheel and proper examination of components to determine the suitability of continuous use.
- Examining the piston and rings, crankshaft, connecting roads, etc and replacing all defective parts
- Inspecting the oil pump, distributor, alternator, kickstarter and servicing them.
- Reopening the engine after examination and replacement of defective parts
- Carrying out all routine servicing as mentioned under periodic maintenance. Overhauling actually gives the vehicle a new life.