Motor vehicle parts and functions

Motor Vehicle Parts And Functions

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They are the major components of a vehicle according to their functions. We will list and explain the various motor vehicle parts and their functions. This is another area of improving road safety awareness. A Motor vehicle is a machine which incorporates a motor (engine) and some casing, usually of metal or fiber used for transportation

Understand The Components Of Motor Vehicle Parts And Functions

The Motor vehicle pnarts are: body and chassis, engine, electrical system, powerplant, emission control system, tyre and accessories.

The Motor Vehicle Body And Chassis

The body and chassis is one of the motor vehicle parts


Motor Vehicle body

serves as an attractive covering for the chassis. Forms the passenger compartment


Motor Vehicle chassis

Includes everything but the vehicle body(frame + running gear)


Motor Vehicle frame

Refers to a very strong steel structure that supports the other components of the vehicle. Some vehicle have frame separated from the body

Suspension, steering and braking system

This part allows the vehicle wheels move up and down with little or no body movement. The steering system performs the duty of turning the vehicle wheels to either left or right. The braking systems is the mechanism that produces friction to reduce wheel rotation. Subsequently, brings the vehicle to stop position.

Motor Vehicle suspension
vehicle suspension system

The Motor Vehicle Engine

The location of the engine is in the front of the chassis. It provide the energy to propel the vehicle and operate other systems. It is in the engine that combustion takes place. Producing energy that powers the entire vehicle. With the heavy engine in the front, the car is safer in a head-on collision. Basic engine parts include the; block, cylinder, piston, rings, combustion chamber, cylinder cover, crankshaft, connecting rod,valve, camshaft, valve spring, rocker arms, flywheel and lifters.

The Motor Vehicle Electrical

It produces hydrogen voltage that operates the spark plugs. Which produces power.

Starting system-

It houses an inbuilt electric motor that rotates the engine crankshaft. Until the engine starts and runs on its own power. Battery provides the electricity for the starting system. When the key is turned to start, current flows into the parts of starting system. The electric starting motor gear engages a gear on the engine flywheel. This spines the crankshaft. The starting system is shut-off immediately the engine starts.

Charging system

Replaces electrical energy consumed from the battery during starting system operation. Forces electric current back into the battery to renergize the battery. Fan belts spines alternator pulley while the engine is running. And Alternato produce electricity for the battery and other electrical needs of the car. There is a voltage regulator that controls the output of the alternator.

Computer system

A modern car have several computers and dozens of sensors and actuators. “Sensors are the eyes, ears and nose ” of the system. Actuators serves as the “hands” of the computer system. The computer is the “brain” that makes decisions about how to control the actuators.

The Vehicle Powerplant or Power Train

It includes the clutch, drive shaft, transmission, rear axle assembly and axle shafts. Powerplant refers to the engine and transmission part. Transfers turning force from the engine crankshaft the car’s drive wheels.


Car clutch

the effects is to disconnect the engine from the gear box. Whenever the clutch is released, the clutch locks the flywheel. And transmission input shaft together. Causes engine power to rotate the parts of the driver line and propel the car.

Propeller(drive shaft)

Motor Vehicle propeller

It is a hollow metal tube with two or more universals that allow the rear suspension to move up and down bending or breaking the drive shaft. Transfers power from the transmission to the axle assembly.


Vehicle transmission system can be called, gear and speed reduction. A gear system transmitting mechanical power. Provides a speed-torque conversion from a higher speed motor to a slower with more forceful output. Types, manual and automatic transmission. Manual- cheaper, lighter and usually gives better performance. 2 basic types- rugged sliding- mess, common constant-mesh. Helps driver change gear ratios and engine torque going to the drive wheels. Allows the vehicle to accelerate quickly in lower transmission. Automatic– Easier to drive. Selection of appropriate gear ratio without any operator intervention. Fluid flywheel or torque converter is between the engine and transmission.

Rear axle assembly

rear axle system

Contains a differential and two axles. Differential- Differential is a set of gear and shaft that transmit power from the drive shaft to the axle. Axle- Axle are steel shaft that connect the differential and drive wheels. Carries the weight of the rear wheels. Acts as a mounting point for the springs and shock absorbers. Has a large bulge in the center which is the ‘differential’ or gear housing.

Common types of drive wheel– The common types of drive wheel are front wheel, four wheel and rear-wheel. Front wheel– engine drives the front wheels only. Gives more interior space. Beacuse the power train is a single unit contained in the engine compartment of the vehicle. Four-wheel (4WD)- allows all 4 wheels to receive torque from the engine simultaneously. Provides better control in normal road vehicle on many surfaces like ice, mud, slippery surfaces, snow or loose gravel. Rear-wheel– driven wheels are located at the rear. Used almost universally for driving motorcycles etc

The Vehicle Emission control

Vehicle component responsible for reducing air pollution. An integral part of the engine. Should not be tampered with or disconnected. Includes- crank case ventilation, catalytic converter, fuel vapor storage, air injection. Catalytic converters– installed in the exhaust system, like a muffler. It converts harmful by-products into carbon dioxide and water vapor by means of a heat producing chemical reaction.

catalytic converter

The Motor Vehicle Tyre

Tyres are ring-shaped parts, including the rubber, metals and plastic composition. That fit around wheels to protect them and enhance their function. There are 3 main parts of the tyre- tread, body and beads.

a motor vehicle tyre

The tread- It is a thick pad of rubber into which grooves are cut to form cleats or ridge. The tread provides traction to move and stop a vehicle to prevent skidding and sliding while a vehicle is in motion. Tractor and snow tyres have deep grooves. That enable the trye to move through soft earth or deep snow.

The body- It consists of layers of fabric permeated with rubber. Each fabric layer is called a ply. And the strength of a tyre is sometimes described by the number of plies in its body. Most automobiles tyres have two plies.

The beads– are the two bands that hold the tyre to its wheel. They are located along the tyre’s inner edges. And are made up of strands of wire surrounded by rubber and covered with fabric. Read tyre care to gain more useful information on tyre.

The Vehicle Accessories

Accessories are the optional parts of the vehicle. Which may fitted to perform an additional function or enhance performance. Air-conditioning and radio/stereo system. Air-conditioning- consumes fuel, overlabours the engine. Radio/Stereo- runs down the vehicle battery if alternator is off.

Motor vehicle parts and functions conclusion

Having done the detailed explanation of motor vehicle parts and their functions. I want to believe that we have succeeded in passing useful information to readers.

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