Know The Important Of Airway Management On Accident Victims

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Airway Obstruction

It is a known fact that the majority of preventable deaths following trauma occur as a result of airway obstruction. Obstruction may occur at any point within the airway, from the upper airways to the bronchi deep within the chest. Therefore the important of airway management is vital to the survival of an accident victims.

Respiratory system

respiratory system for Airway Management

Common Causes Of Airway Obstruction

At The Upper Airway

  • Tongue (due to unconsciousness)
  • Soft tissue swelling
  • Blood, vomit
  • Direct injury

Larynx (voice box)

  • Foreign material, direct injury, soft tissue swelling
  • Laryngeal spam

Lower airway

  • Secretions, oedema, blood
  • Bronchospasm
  • Aspiration of gastric contents

Recognition Of Airway Obstruction

  • Observe for chest/abdominal movements
  • Listen at mouth and nose for breath sounds and abnormal noises
  • Feel at mouth and nose for expired air

Abnormal sounds in airway obstruction

  • Snoring- this is due to obstruction of upper airway by the tongue
  • Gurgling- could occur due to obstruction of Upper airway by liquids(blood, vomit)
  • Wheezing – Due to narrowing of the lower airways
  • Complete airway obstruction is silent

Airway Management

Maintaining an adequate and open airway is the main foundation of all patients management

Basic Airway Techniques

  • Head tilt/chin lift
  • Jaw thrust Note that head tilt /chin lift is not to be used in cases of suspected cervical spine injury
head tilt to ensure good Airway Management

Airway Adjuncts

  • Oropharyngeal airway Size- corner of mouth to tip ear lobe Insertion- thereafter
  • Nasopharyngeal airway Size- tip of nose to tip of ear lobe Insertion- thereafter Note that Nasopharyngeal airways are contraindicated in patients with suspected base skull fractures.

Suction

  • Suck only as far as you can see, Deep suction can cause legal stimulating the gag reflex
  • Avoid stimulating the gag reflex
  • Avoid causing trauma
  • Apply suction for 15 second maximum
  • Should only be applied when the catheter is been withdrawn from the oro/Nasopharyngeal area.

Assisted ventilation- bag-valve-mask

The bag-valve-mask consists of a face mask, one-way (nonrebreathing) valve, self-inflating bag, and oxygen reservoir

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