First aid

First Aid

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What is first aid? It is the immediate treatment given to a victim with available material before taking him/her to the nearest hospital. The fate of the victim may depend on the type of the first aid given.

Purpose Of First Aid

  • To preserve life
  • Enhance recovery
  • To prevent victim condition from worsening


The scope of first aid icludes majorly the diagnosis, the treatment and the disposal of the case

  1. Diagnosis implies to determine the what is wrong.
  2. History of how accident occurred
  3. Signs and symptoms, that is, to see victims, his complaints and agony
  4. Treatment. This means to decide skillfully the type of treatment. For instance, a bleeding casualty should not be given anything through mouth.
  5. Disposal. The first aider should decide whether to take victim home or hospital. ABC categories of victims. DRABC. The letters stands for D– Danger, R– Response, A– Airways, B– Bleeding and C– Circulation
  • Ensure your safety first before saving an accident victim’s life
  • You are to determine the nature of injury to enable you categories them.
  • The order of attention is as follows; unconscious, bleeding and dead
  • When it is unsafe for you, and the victim is in a dangerous place like the middle of the road, then move the victim to a safe place.
  • If you are the only first aider to move the victim, move him by dragging him/her by both the ankle slowly and carefully
  • However, if the legs are injured, then you may have to pull by both elbow or wrist with his/her hands above the head, slowly without banging the head
  • Never move an unconscious victim unless that is the only way to keep him safe and never stand in the middle of the road to stop vehicles
  • Remove anything that may worsen victim’s condition without endangering yourself, that is, disconnecting batteries of car, open car doors
  • If there are bystanders, engage them so they do not scream or disturb you

Responses And Airways Clearance

  • Call out to the victim
  • Tap his face or shoulder gently if he seems to be asleep
  • Ask him what happened
  • Ask him where it hurts
  • If he doesn’t answer or move he could be unconscious
  • Two things are common with unconscious victim; glottis refused to function hence saliva, food, blood may enter wind pipe or tongue may roll back to block throat particularly if victim is lying on his back

A – Airways

  • Tilt the head back to open the airways
  • If anything is blocking it, use a spatula to scoop it out
  • Then turn the victim onto his side into recovery position
  • This is done by folding one of his hand on the chest and spreading the other while the victim is gently roll to the side

B – Breathing

  • Watch or feel his lower chest to see if it is moving up and down
  • You can check by putting your ear close to his face, so that you can feel or listen to find out if there is air coming out of his mouth
  • If he is not breathing, give artificial respiration
  • The aim is to work on the heart when it stops working

Mouth-To-Mouth Insufflations And Cardiac Massage

  • After every third artificial respiration, the first aider places his two palms on each other and locks them
  • Then places them on the sternum bone of victim, depresses the sternum five(5) times
  • The process is repeated until the victim is resuscitated

C – Circulation

  • Check if there is a pulse
  • You may check this by feeling the pulse near the neck or on the wrist
  • If you can feel the pulse, count the number of pulse per minute and report any change to the doctor when he arrives
  • Get medical aid immediately

Content Of First Aid Box

Every vehicle should have a first aid kit inside it. It is one of the necessities in a vehicle. The followings are the content of a first aid kit.

  • Bandage
  • Roll of adhesive
  • Lont/gauze
  • Scissors
  • Cotton wool
  • Safety pin
  • Iodine tincture
  • Wooden spatula
  • Crape bandage
  • Antiseptic fluid
  • Embrocation

For more information read, casualty handling rules and first aid , casualty handling and Triangular bandage

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