First aid

First Aid

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What is first aid? It is the immediate treatment given to a victim with available material before taking him/her to the nearest hospital. The fate of the victim may depend on the type of the first aid given.

Purpose Of First Aid

  • To preserve life
  • Enhance recovery
  • To prevent victim condition from worsening

First Aid: Taking Care Of Victim

  • Ensure your safety first before saving an accident victim’s life
  • You are to determine the nature of injury to enable you categories them.
  • The order of attention is as follows; unconscious, bleeding and dead
  • When it is unsafe for you, and the victim is in a dangerous place like the middle of the road, then move the victim to a safe place.
  • If you are the only first aider to move the victim, move him by dragging him/her by both the ankle slowly and carefully
  • However, if the legs are injured, then you may have to pull by both elbow or wrist with his/her hands above the head, slowly without banging the head
  • Never move an unconscious victim unless that is the only way to keep him safe and never stand in the middle of the road to stop vehicles
  • Remove anything that may worsen victim’s condition without endangering yourself, that is, disconnecting batteries of car, open car doors
  • If there are bystanders, engage them so they do not scream or disturb you

Responses And Airways Clearance

  • Call out to the victim
  • Tap his face or shoulder gently if he seems to be asleep
  • Ask him what happened
  • Ask him where it hurts
  • If he doesn’t answer or move he could be unconscious
  • Two things are common with unconscious victim; glottis refused to function hence saliva, food, blood may enter wind pipe or tongue may roll back to block throat particularly if victim is lying on his back

A – Airways

  • Tilt the head back to open the airways
  • If anything is blocking it, use a spatula to scoop it out
  • Then turn the victim onto his side into recovery position
  • This is done by folding one of his hand on the chest and spreading the other while the victim is gently roll to the side

B – Breathing

  • Watch or feel his lower chest to see if it is moving up and down
  • You can check by putting your ear close to his face, so that you can feel or listen to find out if there is air coming out of his mouth
  • If he is not breathing, give artificial respiration
  • The aim is to work on the heart when it stops working

Mouth-To-Mouth Insufflations And Cardiac Massage

  • After every third artificial respiration, the first aider places his two palms on each other and locks them
  • Then places them on the sternum bone of victim, depresses the sternum five(5) times
  • The process is repeated until the victim is resuscitated

C – Circulation

  • Check if there is a pulse
  • You may check this by feeling the pulse near the neck or on the wrist
  • If you can feel the pulse, count the number of pulse per minute and report any change to the doctor when he arrives
  • Get medical aid immediately

Content Of First Aid Box

Every vehicle should have a first aid kit inside it. It is one of the necessities in a vehicle. The followings are the content of a first aid kit.

  • Bandage
  • Roll of adhesive
  • Lont/gauze
  • Scissors
  • Cotton wool
  • Safety pin
  • Iodine tincture
  • Wooden spatula
  • Crape bandage
  • Antiseptic fluid
  • Embrocation

For more information read, casualty handling rules and first aid and casualty handling

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